Installing Freebsd 11 via USB error 19

Today I tried to install FreeBSD 11.0
FreeBSD booted from the USB stick. When mounting the install image I received error:

Mounting from ufs:/dev/ufs/FreeBSD_Install failed with error 19.

I couldn’t figure out why I constantly got this error.

After tweaking bios etc. Using an USB2 port I finally gave up an though my USB stick was broken..
But then creating the second stick I found the problem.

The first time I created my memory stick like this on Mac OS X

sudo dd if="FreeBSD-11.0-RELEASE-amd64-memstick.img" of="/dev/disk2s1" bs="10240"

Look at the wrong /dev/disk2s1 path.. (that’s wrong!! )

The second attempt I used the following command. (I needed tot unmount /dev/disk2s1 in DiskUtilty first

sudo dd if="FreeBSD-11.0-RELEASE-amd64-memstick.img" of=/dev/disk2 bs=1m conv=sync

Now it works :D

Adding a raw mail-file to the postfixqueue

Today I had an issue that I needed to resend quarantined emails.
You can simply execute the following command to inject the mails to postfix

sendmail -t < name_of_the_raw_email_file

Thanks Wietse (Author of Postfix)

Simple acces to your HTTP(s) services via SSH and a SOCKS Proxy

I didn’t know this trick:

This blog entry describes how to use your normal SSH connection as a SOCKS proxy for web requests.
Just connect to the SSH server with the -D option on port 8080

ssh -D 8080 -p [port number] [username]@[IP address or hostname]

On Mac OS X just enable the socks proxy in the Advanced tab of your network/wifi card:
And enter as SOCKS proxy server, on port 8080

Screen Shot 2016-07-04 at 08.15.04

But for a full vpn attempt over SSH, maybe I should look at this:

Encrypted offsite backups via rsync

I love rsync to simply send files to other machines for backing up my data.
Unfortunately sometimes you can’t trust the other side. So you would like to encrypt your data..
Rsync (via ssh) is encrypted during transport but not on disk…

I tried several solutions but they all have some issues:

It’s nice but doesn’t do what rsync does. It just makes an encrypted initial full-backup and sends increments. It’s also adviced to do a full backup regularly. That’s not nice thing when you have to send >200GB over the internet..

Rsyncrypto encrypts files in such a way they are rsync friendly. (Big files don’t completely change when a byte is changed).
Problem with rsyncrypto is that it requires an encrypted copy of all your data. I’ve got a LOT of files, and keeping this copy up to date costs too much time. I need to run rsyncrypto just before rsyncing the data. And my experiences with it is that it was pretty slow. And I even haven’t taken into account the issue that I’m required to store my data on disk 2 times..

Meet encfs

Thanks to a reaction on serverfault ( )
I’ve found encfs. Which makes it possible to create and mount a virtual filesystem via fuse-fs which shows an encrypted representation of your files..
Exactly what I want…

Install encfs on FreeBSD

It’s required to enable fuse in FreeBSD. This is a kernel module
so add the following line to ‘/boot/loader.conf’


Next install the port (or package) encfs. (I love ports)

cd /usr/ports/sysutils/fusefs-encfs
make install clean

Creating a Backup

# mount read-only encrypted virtual copy of unencrypted local data:
encfs --reverse --idle=60 -o ro ~/data/ ~/.tmp_encrypted/

rsync -ai  ~/.tmp_encrypted/

umount ~/.tmp_encrypted/

First time a menu appears. I choose the following options:

  • Configuration mode: x – expert configuration
  • Cipher algorithm: AES
  • Key size: 256
  • Block size: 1024
  • Filename encoding: null*
  • Per-file initialization vectors: No
  • Password: *****

*I don’t have the requirement to encrypt my filenames


To restore you data..

  • Take your encrypted file(s) Only the one’s you need :D
  • Copy them into an empty folder ~encrypted-stuff
  • Copy your .encfs6.xml key to the same folder

Mount it:

encfs ~encrypted-stuff ~decrypted-stuff

Encfs asks for the password and behold: you can acces your files again in the ~decrypted-stuff folder :D


You should backup your plain text .encfs6.xml file (which is on the unencrypted volume).
on a really safe location. It’s your only key to decrypt your data.


A possible extra safety measure could be to NOT sync the encrypted .encfs6.xml file…
So use –exclude=encfs6.xml

For me the filenames aren’t really sensitive so I don’t encrypt them.
It makes it much more easy to find the correct file in my encrypted data..

Btw a scripting tip could be the following ‘–sdtinpass’ and supply your password:

echo 'PASSWORD' | encfs --reverse --stdinpass --idle=60 -o ro ~/data/ ~/.tmp_encrypted/

If you have suggestions or advise, please drop a line!!